MEAP stands for Mobile Enterprise Application Platform and is a software that developers would use to make employee-facing mobile apps. They have everything a developer needs to build, debug and deploy mobile apps that can connect to other, pre-existing data in the organization.
The external data meant to be integrated can be located on-premises or via cloud services. Thus, the MEAP solution will usually offer varied methods for integrating data, either by allowing to incorporate SSO (Single Sign On), or by migrating data regularly.
While Mobile Enterprise Application Platforms generally share or are compatible with popular frontend frameworks, the backend is generally geared towards allowing complex and multiple data integrations in a secure way. The distribution may be another differentiation to B2C app dev tools, as enterprises commonly deploy apps as either progressive web apps (PWA) or through mobile device management solutions (MDM) where consumer-facing apps ordinarily will be submitted to public app stores.
Yes, Gartner started to converge around a new term called MADP (Mobile Application Development Platform) all the way back in 2012. While MEAP is an enterprise-heavy approach, Gartner suggests that MADP is a more general, one-size-fits-all approach for making either a consumer or an enterprise app with the same platform. Following the 'code-once-deploy-everywhere' philosophy using the same platform has the potential to hold more benefits than it adds in complexity.