MADP (Mobile Application Development Platform) is a software suite that allows the quick development, debugging and deployment of mobile applications for smartphones tablets. Software suites differentiate based on the additional tools they ship to allow specialized development opportunities, i.e. a mobile backend as a service (BaaS), front-end frameworks geared towards native or web apps, integrations of APIs, etc.
It's important to distinguish what kind of app should be developed, as this can impact the choice of MADP platform. Some solutions specialize in browser-based applications, while others are geared towards either iOS or Android apps. Again others offer a "Cross-platform" development where developers can make an app once but subsequently deploy it to various device platforms and categories (phones, tablets, watches) with almost no additional effort.
For an enterprise application like an employee-facing app there is a special subcategory of MADP, called MEAP (Mobile Enterprise Application Platform). These are specifically created to incorporate many on-premise and cloud sources in a secure way.